September 20, 2013
Greenbaum House Image by Steven K. Alspaugh
Homes are expressions of our individualities. The home emerges out of the ground wrapping around the space we need to lead a comfortable life. Comfort has a direct correlation with the climate. Following our individual expression, it is the climate that is the primary determinant of the home design and construction. Exploring the mid-century modern architecture, the AIA Committee on Design (COD) held its annual Spring Conference at Palm Springs, CA on May 9-12, 2013. The conference led us to many homes built between 1930s to current date in this desert climate. I was one of the two lucky winners of the COD Knowledge Scholarship, and was able to avail the opportunity of being a part of the tremendous conference through the generous support of couple donors.
Palm Springs is a unique city located off the major arteries of Los Angeles region, sitting on a detour between Los Angeles and Las Vegas. The city was born and put on the map when celebrities travelling between LA and LV would leisure at Palm Springs having a good time away from the tourist traffic. The practice continues today. This pattern has led to many homes away from homes in Palm Springs. We toured many of the luxurious residences and other prominent projects during the COD conference. The architects of the projects we visited included Albert Frey, Palmer & Krisel, John Lautner, Donald Wexler, Stewart Williams, William Cody, Jim Jennings, Marmol & Radziner, O2 Architecture, Ana Escalante, and Frederick Fisher. We had the privilege of hearing from William Krisel, Jim Jennings and Fred Fisher, among others.
Responding to the local climate, each home we visited had a large private swimming pool, which seemed to be a checklist item for all construction in Palm Springs. Each project also made the best use of the surrounding views, so much so that one forgot the house while looking out. Of all the projects we saw, I was immediately taken by the Greenbaum House designed by Ana Escalante, completed in 2006. This is a residence where the boundary between the outdoor swimming pool and the large living room completely melts, a house where the individuality of the owner shines, and a house that begins to speak to the Palm Springs climate.
Entrance to Greenbaum House. Image by Steven K. Alspaugh
The inspiration for the house came from the owner who loves to swim. The initial thought was to design something very environment appropriate, which slowly turned to be exhibitionist as well. The house expresses the individuality of the owner by bringing the outdoor swimming pool at your face as soon as you enter the house. The entrance of the Greenbaum House is sunken, approached by a sloping ramp from the street level culminating at a shaded outdoor vestibule. One enters the living room directly facing the swimming pool beyond the concrete wall with punched openings.
During our visit, once we absorbed the blue glow of the light coming from the pool filtering into the living area, we were surprised by the sudden appearance of the owner waving at us from the pool. We found ourselves drawn immediately to the glass wall separating the pool from the living room. Only after exploring the pool did we take in the rest of the space. The effect is mesmerizing to the first time visitor.
Living Room Wall’s Punched Openings to Swimming Pool. Image by Deepika Padam
Owner Swimming as Seen from Living Room. Image by Deepika Padam
This house is about the pool, built around a pool, engulfing the pool, exhibiting the pool, with the owner almost living in the pool. But the pool was not just meant to be a pool during the design phase. It was imagined that because the pool will stay at 70 to 80 degrees temperature throughout the year and the windows between the pool and the living space are well insulated, it will help control the temperature within the house. But the owner jokes today that it is similar to being in a plane at 42,000 feet and mistakenly thinking that those plane windows also insulate. In reality, the Greenbaum house controls temperature well because it is part subterranean and insulated in the superstructure very well. The pool certainly helps keep it cool, yet is not the primary insulator. However, the pool remains the central attraction for everybody. When the owner holds parties at the house, everybody has a lot of fun with the pool and the picture windows, where everybody has taken a Facebook™ picture.
Second Floor Perched Above the Swimming Pool. Image by Deepika Padam
There is more to this house than a beautiful 25m lap pool sunken in the ground. The house is located 500 feet above the valley floor in a gated community with dramatic views of the desert and the city below. “The developer of the community created the home site by leveling the existing natural mountain features. The project carves back into the site as well as hovers over it, in order to restore its original dramatic topographical features.” – Escalante Architects. Not only does the form of the house address the local terrain in this fashion, but it also takes advantage of the natural insulation offered by the ground due to being subterranean. Ample daylight is allowed into the interiors while controlling the heat gain through shutters, projections and canopies. The indoor spaces flow into the outdoor spaces with large glass expanses that open up into terraces. These terraces are used for entertaining guests during the milder temperatures in the evening.
Floor Plans. Source: http://www.escalantearchitects.com
The organization of the house functions is not atypical. The living room seating area steps down following the site terrain and opens up to the valley view beyond. The kitchen and dining area are in the opposite direction with a guest bedroom in the back. The second floor is perched above the swimming pool, crosses over and lands on the detached fitness room alcove on the other side of the pool. The upstairs consists of two separate bedroom suites. Flanked by the two bedroom suites is a small library / seating alcove that opens up to a large terrace fully equipped with barbeque appliances. When you walk out to the back at the mid-level, you are welcomed by the pools. The sunken lap pool provides the illusion of an infinity pool casting a blue glow over the second floor slab above. There is also a separate sauna building adjacent to the fitness room.
Blue Glow from the Pool. Image by Deepika Padam
Pool Image by Marco Garcia from the website of Escalante Architects
At about 4,300 SF, the Greenbaum House is a good size house built in steel frame construction. The owner shared with us that it took about a year and a half of construction time to build the house. The construction had to stop a few times because the engineers wanted to reinforce the living room/pool demising wall with redundancy. So they kept re-engineering it. It is designed to withstand an 8-point earthquake. The glass windows are composed of four layers of glass and four layers of mylar, making them a total of 4.5” thick pane windows. The utility bill, which in the Palm Springs desert could be up to $25,000 a year, is under $100 a month on average for the Greenbaum House with the integrated active and passive solar systems. Standing in the Living Room and pointing to the East wall with punched openings to the pool, the owner is confident that the pool helps insulate along the Eastern edge. He proudly swims every day.
Punched Window Between the Living Room and Outdoor Pool. Image by Steven K. Alspaugh
Left: Sauna Building. Right: Fitness Room Adjacent to the Pool. Images by Deepika Padam
When the house was built, the design team took as many eco-friendly measures as they could at the time. A small token of it is the tile in the pool, bathrooms, etc. made of recycled bottle glass. Using materials and finishes that speak of the desert, the house sets an example for responsible architecture at Palm Springs. It turns out, the house is currently for sale. As the owner spends much of his time in the Bay Area, he has decided to move. When asked what his next house will be like, he says with a smile that it will be smaller.
Left: Blurred Edges. Image by Steven K. Alspaugh. Right: Staircase with Pool Level at Mid Landing. Image by Deepika Padam
Seating Lounge on the Second Floor. Image by Deepika Padam
A majority of the work we visited during the COD conference was done in the 50s. The Greenbaum House is one of the few that is done by a contemporary architect. These custom homes not only express the owners’ individualities, but also the unique design approach to the climatic conditions of the desert and the styles prevalent during the time of construction. The Greenbaum House, although may seem to be a rather usual house with expected functional organization, orientation to views, and response to climate, gets away from the design approach of its Palm Springs predecessors. This is evident in the site manipulation to make it a 3-level residence in essence, and in the use of contemporary measures to environmental control and envelop design. However, the house fails to accomplish many shaded outdoor spaces that some of the older homes at Palm Springs so generously provide. Ultimately it is a functional modern home that could be located in another climate or locality very easily. However, having lived in a desert home for many years myself, the $100 energy bill on average seems quite a feat!
The Owner Sharing his Stories with the COD Group. Image by Steven K. Alspaugh
One of the Suites on the Second Floor. Image by Deepika Padam
The Greenbaum House screams simplicity. It is a simple home that springs from a pool with living spaces suspended above the pool. The interior finishes and furnishings are modern and simple as well along the language of the contemporary desert architecture. It is a place built to entertain with blurred indoor and outdoor boundaries. The house delivers the owner’s desire of focusing on the lap pool. This was the one house we visited during the entire conference where I finally removed my shoes and wet my feet.
Left: Pool as seen from Second Floor Entertainment Patio. Right: Deepika and Dorothy Taking a Break from the Palm Springs Heat. Images by Steven K. Alspaugh
Although Greenbaum House left a permanent imprint on my mind, the whole conference was an eye-opening experience for me. It broadened my perspective for the committee, and I was able to connect with professionals from various spectrums, levels, and backgrounds. COD is a great group to get involved with for emerging professionals and seasoned architects alike. The conference itself is an out-of-the-box experience with the majority of the time spent in visiting architecture instead of talking about it in a freezing conference hall. The work is carefully chosen along the theme for the year. I took the time to enjoy the conference and the great company during the three days, but also stayed in touch with the outer world through my tweets and images. I returned overjoyed, energized and inspired.
April 12, 2013
Member Slideshows are created each year for the Spring Conference to illustrate the recent work of the attendee’s firms. All COD members are welcome to participate. Attendees have 6 slides and 60 seconds to present their projects, or whatever is on their mind. Many of the 2012 Member Slideshow slides are posted on the COD Pinterest page.
Laban Wingert, AIA presented his slides.
In addition to the other projects we will visit in Palm Springs during our Regional Modernism Conference, May 9-12, we will also be visiting the Marmol Radziner Prefab Desert house.
Take a look at this 2 1/2 minute YouTube video of the designers talking about their work:
Other projects we will visit in Palm Springs include:
Menrad Residence by William Krisel
Edris House by E. Stewart Williams
Desert One by Jim Jennings
Steel Houses by Don Wexler
Grace Miller House by Richard Neutra
Abernathy House by William F. Cody
Hotel Lautner by John Lautner
L’Horizon Hotel by William F. Cody
Southridge Residence William F. Cody
There is still time to register! Click here for more information. And don’t forget to submit your images for the 2013 Member Slide Show.
We toured the building with two of the architects from the local architecture firm who collaborated on the project. The project was more complex, and the central atrium space that has been so widely published, was warmer and more inviting than I expected. The site plan was the key to winning the project according to the local architects.
The simple box of performance and convention spaces fronts onto the central business district. The now familiar fish-shaped atrium sits tight against a rail line on one side and on the other side creates an outdoor gathering space between this atrium and the performance house. Enclosed bridges connect the ‘fish’ atrium to the performance venues.
The ‘fish’ is a tour de force of structure and light and is truly beautiful to walk through. It is curious that it is so disconnected from the theaters and convention spaces; not really serving as a lobby for either. Its prime role appears to be as an atrium for a small group of people to pass through to get to the narrow band of small conference rooms bordering the rail tracks. It also functions as a dramatic light fixture in the city. The quality of this light-filled space running alongside the entire outdoor gathering space is what makes the experience so special day and night. The local architects noted that Tadao Ando had suggested the ‘fish’ be filled in with glass floors to make the large atrium more useful–and profitable.
The theaters are another challenge. With an understandable desire to have their public entries overlook the central business district on one side and the outdoor courtyard on the other, the entry sequence up to the theaters contorts one way, then another. Ultimately, this sequence is a regrettable let-down compared to the marvelous ‘fish’. The same can be said for the theaters themselves, though I suppose one goes to the theater for the show more than the quality of the space. In the end, the lasting memory is of the grand spectacle of beautiful architecture in the atrium space. As a visitor to an event, it is conceivable one might miss this tour de force and wonder what all the architects are excited about.
Jim Childress, FAIA
(Photos courtesy of Jim Childress and Ann Thompson)